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Plants are therefore an essential resource for human existence and we should all be aware that plants across the world are endangered with many facing extinction. Their conservation should be a key component of efforts for biodiversity conservation. Plant diversity is being lost at an unprecedented rate. In the past few centuries the changes in society and the increasing pace of development mean that the scale of human impact has grown catastrophically.

Integrated Plant Conservation | BGCI

Habitat loss and degradation is the primary cause of species loss at local, regional and global scales. The deliberate or inadvertent introduction of alien species has also led to considerable alteration of many native ecosystems and resulted in the decline of many native species.

Many plant species are being over-exploited. Examples are the unsustainable targeted logging of timber trees, excessive wild harvesting of medicinal and aromatic plants and the extraction of non-timber forest products such as fruits, nuts and resins. Due to this multitude of different threats, only through coordinated action will it be possible to halt or reduce the loss of biodiversity.

Strategic Plan for Biodiversity Mechanisms for Implementation. The Cartagena Protocol.

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News and Communications. General References. Ecosystem Approach. The following 12 principles are complementary and interlinked. Principle 1:The objectives of management of land, water and living resources are a matter of societal choices.


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Different sectors of society view ecosystems in terms of their own economic, cultural and society needs. Indigenous peoples and other local communities living on the land are important stakeholders and their rights and interests should be recognized. Both cultural and biological diversity are central components of the ecosystem approach, and management should take this into account. Societal choices should be expressed as clearly as possible.

Ecosystems should be managed for their intrinsic values and for the tangible or intangible benefits for humans, in a fair and equitable way. Principle 2: Management should be decentralized to the lowest appropriate level.

Biodiversity Function

Decentralized systems may lead to greater efficiency, effectiveness and equity. Management should involve all stakeholders and balance local interests with the wider public interest. The closer management is to the ecosystem, the greater the responsibility, ownership, accountability, participation, and use of local knowledge.

Principle 3: Ecosystem managers should consider the effects actual or potential of their activities on adjacent and other ecosystems.


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  • Management interventions in ecosystems often have unknown or unpredictable effects on other ecosystems; therefore, possible impacts need careful consideration and analysis. This may require new arrangements or ways of organization for institutions involved in decision-making to make, if necessary, appropriate compromises.

    Principle 4: Recognizing potential gains from management, there is usually a need to understand and manage the ecosystem in an economic context.

    Conservation of Plants and Animals Class 8 CBSE NCERT - Explanation and Solutions in easy Hindi

    Any such ecosystem-management programme should: Reduce those market distortions that adversely affect biological diversity; Align incentives to promote biodiversity conservation and sustainable use; Internalize costs and benefits in the given ecosystem to the extent feasible. The greatest threat to biological diversity lies in its replacement by alternative systems of land use. This often arises through market distortions, which undervalue natural systems and populations and provide perverse incentives and subsidies to favor the conversion of land to less diverse systems.

    Often those who benefit from conservation do not pay the costs associated with conservation and, similarly, those who generate environmental costs e. Alignment of incentives allows those who control the resource to benefit and ensures that those who generate environmental costs will pay. Principle 5: Conservation of ecosystem structure and functioning, in order to maintain ecosystem services, should be a priority target of the ecosystem approach. Ecosystem functioning and resilience depends on a dynamic relationship within species, among species and between species and their abiotic environment, as well as the physical and chemical interactions within the environment.