It was named after Paulo Freire.
Its first chair was Charlie McConnell, the Chief Executive of the Scottish Community Education Council , who had played a lead role in bringing together a range of occupational interests under a single national training standards body, including community education , community development and development education. The inclusion of community development was significant as it was initially uncertain as to whether it would join the NTO for Social Care.
The Community Learning and Development NTO represented all the main employers, trades unions, professional associations and national development agencies working in this area across the four nations of the UK. The NTO continued to recognise the range of different occupations within it, for example specialists who work primarily with young people, but all agreed that they shared a core set of professional approaches to their work.
The UK currently hosts the only global network of practitioners and activists working towards social justice through community development approach, the International Association for Community Development IACD. Community development in Canada has roots in the development of co-operatives, credit unions and caisses populaires. The Antigonish Movement which started in the s in Nova Scotia , through the work of Doctor Moses Coady and Father James Tompkins , has been particularly influential in the subsequent expansion of community economic development work across Canada.
Community development in Australia have often been focussed upon Aboriginal Australian communities, and during the period of the s to the early 21st century were funded through the Community Employment Development Program, where Aboriginal people could be employed in "a work for the dole" scheme, which gave the chance for non-government organisations to apply for a full or part-time worker funded by the Department for Social Security. Dr Jim Ife, formerly of Curtin University , organised a ground breaking text-book on community development.
Community planning techniques drawing on the history of utopian movements became important in the s and s in East Africa , where community development proposals were seen as a way of helping local people improve their own lives with indirect assistance from colonial authorities. Mohandas K. Gandhi adopted African community development ideals as a basis of his South African Ashram, and then introduced it as a part of the Indian Swaraj movement, aiming at establishing economic interdependence at village level throughout India. With Indian independence , despite the continuing work of Vinoba Bhave in encouraging grassroots land reform , India under its first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru adopted a mixed-economy approach, mixing elements of socialism and capitalism.
During the fifties and sixties, India ran a massive community development programme with focus on rural development activities through government support. This was later expanded in scope and was called integrated rural development scheme [IRDP]. A large number of initiatives that can come under the community development umbrella have come up in recent years.
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The main objective of community development in India remains to develop the villages and to help the villagers help themselves to fight against poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition, etc. The beauty of Indian model of community development lies in the homogeneity of villagers and high level of participation. Community development became a part of the Ujamaa Villages established in Tanzania by Julius Nyerere , where it had some success in assisting with the delivery of education services throughout rural areas, but has elsewhere met with mixed success.
In the s and s, community development became a part of "Integrated Rural Development", a strategy promoted by United Nations Agencies and the World Bank. Central to these policies of community development were:.
- African-Asian Rural Development Organization.
- Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences;
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In the s, following critiques of the mixed success of "top down" government programs, and drawing on the work of Robert Putnam , in the rediscovery of social capital , community development internationally became concerned with social capital formation. In particular the outstanding success of the work of Muhammad Yunus in Bangladesh with the Grameen Bank from its inception in , has led to the attempts to spread microenterprise credit schemes around the world.
Yunus saw that social problems like poverty and disease were not being solved by the market system on its own. Thus, he established a banking system which lends to the poor with very little interest, allowing them access to entrepreneurship. Another alternative to "top down" government programs is the participatory government institution.
Rural Development - Contemporary Issues and Practices - Ghent University Library
Participatory governance institutions are organizations which aim to facilitate the participation of citizens within larger decision making and action implementing processes in society. A case study done on municipal councils and social housing programs in Brazil found that the presence of participatory governance institutions supports the implementation of poverty alleviation programs by local governments.
The " human scale development " work of Right Livelihood Award -winning Chilean economist Manfred Max Neef promotes the idea of development based upon fundamental human needs, which are considered to be limited, universal and invariant to all human beings being a part of our human condition. He considers that poverty results from the failure to satisfy a particular human need, it is not just an absence of money.
Whilst human needs are limited, Max Neef shows that the ways of satisfying human needs is potentially unlimited. Satisfiers also have different characteristics: they can be violators or destroyers, pseudosatisfiers, inhibiting satisfiers, singular satisfiers, or synergic satisfiers.
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Max-Neef shows that certain satisfiers, promoted as satisfying a particular need, in fact inhibit or destroy the possibility of satisfying other needs: e. Synergic satisfiers, on the other hand, not only satisfy one particular need, but also lead to satisfaction in other areas: some examples are breastfeeding ; self-managed production; popular education ; democratic community organizations ; preventative medicine ; meditation; educational games.
International organizations apply the term community in Vietnam to the local administrative unit, each with a traditional identity based on traditional, cultural, and kinship relations. Social and economic development planning SDEP in Vietnam uses top-down centralized planning methods and decision-making processes which do not consider local context and local participation. The plans created by SDEP are ineffective and serve mainly for administrative purposes. Local people are not informed of these development plans.
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PRA was used as a tool for mostly outsiders to learn about the local community, which did not effect substantial change. It also requires the local people to have an "initiative-taking" attitude. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Communities taking collective action to solve common problems.
Community building Complete communities Community education Community engagement Community practice Organization workshop Rural community development Urbanism. Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 7 July Oxford University Press. Retrieved Community Development Exchange. Archived from the original on There are various real and perceived advantages and disadvantages which may attract people, including youth, to live in rural areas: lower housing and living costs, more space, less pollution, closer proximity to nature on one hand; fewer local education or job opportunities or choices, difficulties in accessing public services, including transportation, or a lack of cultural and social venues for leisure, on the other.
However, statistics show that real disparities exist between urban and rural areas, with rural youth facing distinct challenges relating to poverty; education, training or employment opportunities , and access to basic services such as health care.
According to Eurostat, in , a higher proportion of the population living in rural areas For young people years specifically, the percentage of those at risk of poverty or social exclusion is The share of young people aged 18 to 24 living in rural areas who were neither in employment nor in further education or training NEET was 3. The rural housing question. Lectures cover the basics of rural planning and rural policy-making, i. Small group teaching enables students to examine key social issues in the countryside with reference to social science literature written from a variety of different perspectives.
These seminars allow for students to review cases of particular or contemporary interest, engage critically with rural policies and analyse their impact on rural societies. The assessment strategy involves individual and group work, essays and presentations, continuous assessment and final year exams. This allows for critical engagement on areas of policy failures and conflict as well as comparative reflection of different cases of rural development and planning issues.